Motivation and Personality
Motivation and Personality is a book by Abraham Maslow, published in 1954. It is one of the most influential books in the field of psychology and has become an iconic text in popular culture.
The book explores the psychology of human motivation and personality and proposes the idea of a 'hierarchy of needs'. Maslow believes that humans have five levels of needs, ranging from physiological needs such as food and shelter, to self-actualization, where one seeks to become the best version of oneself.
Maslow explores the relationship between needs and motivation and shows how they influence a person's personality and behaviour. He also discusses the concept of a 'growth deficit', where people feel that they cannot achieve their potentials because of external circumstances.
The book was originally written as a textbook for students of psychology, but soon became popular with a wider audience.
Motivation and Personality - history of the book
Maslow began work on the book in 1943, when he was professor of psychology at Brandeis University in Massachusetts. He decided to develop a new theory of motivation that would take into account not only biological needs, but also higher-level needs, such as the need for self-actualisation and self-expression.
Maslow conducted numerous studies to validate his theory, including studies of self-actualised people such as Albert Einstein and Elizabeth Kübler-Ross. In the book, Maslow described a hierarchy of needs, which consists of five levels: physiological needs, security needs, social needs, needs for respect and recognition and needs for self-actualisation.
"Motivation and Personality" had a great influence on the development of psychology, and its ideas continue to be relevant today. The book has been reprinted many times and translated into many languages.
Motivation and Personality - reviews
One of the first and most significant reviews was given by Alfred Adler, an Austrian psychologist and colleague of Maslow's. He noted that the book "opens up new avenues in the study of personality and motivation".
Another famous psychologist, B. F. Skinner, also praised Maslow's work, noting that "this book transforms our traditional conception of human motivation.
Psychologists Aaron Beck, Rollo May, Carl Rogers and George Kelly also praised the book. They noted that Maslow's book was important for the study of human nature and motivation.
Among the famous personalities who also left positive reviews were writer Aldous Huxley and philosopher Robert Pirsig. Huxley called the book "a great achievement in psychology" and Pirsig noted that "Maslow opens up a new world of motivation and personality".
Although the book was widely acclaimed, it also had a few critics. Some critics accused Maslow of oversimplifying the idea of human motivation and leaving out some important factors such as biological and social factors. Overall, however, Maslow's book continues to be one of the key works in the psychology of motivation and personality.
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